Wednesday, 11 June 2014

Forest Ecosystems of My Country: Their Nature (Characteristics) and Importance to the Future of My Country.



Forest Ecosystems of My Country: Their Nature (Characteristics) and Importance to the Future of My Country. 



Kiribati is one of the pacific countries that situated along the equator and it comprises of 32 scattered low coral islands plus one high island which is Banaba Island. Kiribati is divided into four groups of islands which are Northern Kiribati, Central Kiribati, Southern Kiribati plus the line and Phoenix Islands. This essay based on the forest ecosystem in Kiribati. In Kiribati the forest cannot actually identified because the land is definitely small and low where there are just several numbers of indigenous and non-indigenous plants found on the islands. The forest in Kiribati may be only portrayed by the assemblage of plants and crops in a particular place and this may be called as bush or shrubs.
To begin with, the types of forest ecosystem found in Kiribati are the mangrove shrubs, the coastal vegetation and the agro forest. The distribution of forest in Kiribati depended on the climate patterns and the availability of fertile soil.The distribution of the mangrove shrubs is mostly concentrated along the ocean and lagoons on the islands of Kiribati but it mostly growing in the northern part of Kiribati. The coastal vegetation on the other hand mostly found on coastal areas at both at the lagoon and ocean side as well. However the agro forest is just basically found on South Tarawa which is the capital city of Kiribati and it mainly found in the middle of the land.
The table below shows the biotic and abiotic factors which affect the distribution of plants and animals in Kiribati. 


Names of Forest
      Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
Long Term
Short Term
Long Term
Short Term
Mangroves
Inorganic waste
Deforestation
Digging Canal
Ocean current
Coastal vegetation
Natural fires
Salinity
Sea level rise
Nutrient-availability (fertility/food availability.
Agro forest
Climate change
Soil, climate (including rainfall amount and distribution.
Adaptation/adaptability
Food availability.

  

According to the table above it shows the biotic and abiotic factors that actually affect the distribution of the forest in Kiribati. Biotic factors are those of living things, which are animals or plants that influences or affects an ecosystem (Dictionary.com). For instance, the living organisms are plants, animals, fungi and single celled organism. Abiotic factors on the other hand refer to the non-living factors which included air, water, climate, and soil. Examples of abiotic factors are humidity, pond, sunlight, rainfall, soil etc. All these factors actually affect the composition, structure, health and functioning of forest ecosystem in Kiribati as a result of pollution or natural phenomenon. This whole system could be altering the life of those organisms within a particular ecosystem. This happened when people alter the environment through pollution such as using the sea or an area on land for their dumping site. If there is more increase in sunlight, then it can easily destroy the plant life and many species in the ecosystem. Mangroves shrubs are actually the good examples where they affected naturally by the inorganic waste where this intrudes its life cycle because people themselves use it as their dumping site. Besides, the distribution of coastal vegetation actually affected by sea sprays because of sea level rise as this causing them to die or even not growing well as they  lack in the nutrient-availability that need it to survive because they located closely to the sea. However, the agro forest actually affected by the climate change in Kiribati. Climate change having a desperate impacts on the lives of crops and plants in Kiribati because it limit the amount of rainfall that needed by those plants and it affects the food chain of that particular crops.
Furthermore, in Kiribati there are various species of organisms found in a particular ecosystem. Mangrove is the main plants species that found in the mangrove shrubs but it having four different types of species but basically found on islands in the northern part of Kiribati. These included TeNikabubuti(White mangrove), TeAitoa (Black mangrove), TeTongoBuangi (Oriental mangrove) and TeTongo (Red mangrove). The structure of mangroves is not very thick where you can also walk through it during the low tide because they are not actually growing together as they grow distantly from each other of about 0.5 meter in-between if you observes the place(Observe). This type of forest distributed discontiguously in Kiribati because some of the species are not specifically found on all part of the country but rather fragmented. Besides that, there some dominated plants that also found existing in the coastal vegetation in Kiribati. These include tekaina(Pandanus Tectorius), tekanawa(CordiaSubcordata), teuri(GuettardaSpeciosa),tekiaiai(Hibiscus Tiliaceus), teren(TournefortiaArgentea), and also including grasses. .The coastal vegetation having no structured because it just included some small plants and even small grasses where this enable you to walk toward these plants freely. The agro forest ecosystem is well structured where the plants growing in a sequential order because the people planted them well. The types of plants  found in this ecosystem are cucumber, water melon, coconut palm, lemon tree, papaya, banana, the native fig or tebero(Ficustinctoria), the common fig, tebiku(Ficuscarica), lime, mango, and many others. This ecosystem combined both the indigenous and non-indigenous plants. The animal founds in the forest ecosystem in Kiribati are mostly small animals and tiny insects such as caterpillar, bees, birds, crabs, flies, fungi, single celled and many others.



1) TeTongo Shrubs                      2) Coastal Vegetation               3) Agro forest