Saturday, 18 May 2013

Inventions found in the late 19th century

How did new inventions in the late 19th to the early 20th century change the lives of people in Europe or in North America? You must discuss no more and no fewer than two to three items.


                                                            Pictures of inventions

                              This is the picture of steam power plant in the late 19th century

                                                                107 old light bulb

                                                       An old telephone

  Note: Remember that these are old ones and there are new advanced technologies on these.

Prior the period 19th century, many inventors from North America and Europe discovered  many inventions that are exposed to the world nowadays. These inventions having their effect on the people as it change the lives of people in Europe or in North America. The following essay would discuss the three inventions which are the steam engine, light bulb and telephone and its effect on the lives of the people in Europe or North America.
To begin with, steam engine is one of the invention that was invented by some genius inventors and this actually changed the lives of people in Europe or North America.  There are three types of steam engines that were invented in Europe. The crude steam engine was the first to be invented by Thomas Savery  in the year 1650-1715[1]. Thomas Newcomen then later having an invention on steam engine in the year 1663-1729 and he named this invention as newcomen steam engine but his invention is not booming[2]. This type of steam engine used the force of atmospheric pressure to do the work as it pumped steam into the cylinder[3]. James Walt from Britain is the third inventor of a real steam engine in the year 1736-1819 and his discovery almost dominate the world by the 20th century onward[4]. The steam engine actually change the lives of people in Europe especially those people who they were working in industries. This where it gives a chance to the working class people in Europe in minimizing their jobs within the industry as a machine that processing things in the industry was running and operated by the steam power[5]. In this case, the working class having less job to do comparing with those of the past decade as people must use their man power to do their job. Steam engine also changed the people's lives in Europe as most of the people found that they can easily travelling from one places to another using a plane, car, trains and ships as these things functioned by a steam engine as well[6].
Furthermore, light bulb is also one of the inventions that invented by some of inventors in those early centuries. The first light bulb was invented in the period 1800 by Humphry Davy an English scientist, but his invention was not quite successful then Thomas Alva Edison discovered later a more advanced technique on a light bulb in the 1802 - 1879[7]. Edison's invention on light bulb is definitely successful where this light bulb consisting of an evacuated glass bulb that containing a filament made from a carbonized cotton thread and this was definitely have a great demanding by people in Europe at that time[8]. Before the light bulb found, the people of Europe and North America where always used the candles or sometimes the fireplace to make a light in their homes and their indoor activities such as reading, sewing and working were more limited to daylight hours[9]. After the discovery of light bulb, people in homes, workplaces and public places realized the conveniences that light bulbs offered. The people indoor activities are always available for them as this source of light actually provide a more perfect lighting in each particular homes in Europe[10]. Light bulb also very essential to stores, factories and various types of businesses as it actually gains them more profit. Workers employed in those particular places also having a chance to gain more wages as their working hours is increase for their late working in the night[11].
Moreover, telephone is also one of the inventions that also changed the lives of people in Europe or North America. The telephone was absolutely invented by Antonio Meucci in the year 1871 but fail to patent his invention as he cannot afford a $250.00 fee[12]. Two years later in 1874 Alexander Graham Bell who shared a laboratory  with Meucci paid a patent for a telephone and declared it as his own invention[13]. Before the telephone introduced, the only electric telecommunication between people in Europe and North America is the a telegraph[14]. The telegraph was hardly to use by people as you have to memorize codes for letters of the alphabet as information came directly into different code so from this where it making people having limited means of communication[15]. When the telephone was recovered and introduced by Bell then the people of Europe and North America actually find Bells invention to be very important as this made them more accessible to communicate with their family from another place through the telephone communication system[16].

In conclusion, the following inventions shown above are actually important to the people of Europe and even the government. Without the steam engine people were working in industries cannot even provide lots of their output and the government could not also gained higher profit as industries cannot provide the government with many product. The steam engine allowed people to travel to other places by planes, ships and many other transportation that operated by steam power. The invention on the light bulb actually important for people in Europe and in North America as the people might doing their own indoor activities late in the night time and the invention on the telephone is also very much important to the people as it makes an easy communication between them if they are in far places.

[2] ibid
[3] ibid
[8] ibid
[10] ibid
[11] ibid
[13] ibid
[15] ibid
[16] ibid


" Who invented the steam engine and how was it used during the industrial revolution?, viewed 5 May, 2013.

" Why was the telephone invented?, viewed 5 May, 2013.


Bull, J and Same, U. n.d, " Inventions and Discoveries" Online posting, n.d, Reading, viewed 5 May 2013,

" The History of the Automobile, viewed 5 May, 2013.

John, D. n.d, " When was the light bulb invented?" Online posting, n.d, Reading, viewed 5 May 2013,


Paul, S.1999, " The History of Steam Engines" Online posting, 15 August 2007, Reading, viewed 5 May 2013,


Robin, L. n.d, " The Telephone: Antonio Meucci & Alexander Graham Bell, viewed 5 May, 2013.

" Uses of Light Bulbs in the 1800s, viewed 5 May, 2013.

How the landscape in Kiribati Changed overtime?


The purpose of this report is to investigate factors that are contributing to the changes of the landscape of the land in Kiribati.In doing this research, I choose south Tarawa which is the capital city of Kiribati to do my research on it. The landscape on south Tarawa is absolutely changed as there are many factors that happening on the island. Refer to the picture shown below for the map of Kiribati.

Map of Kiribati

 Hypothesis: Urban development is the main factors that contributing to the changes of the landscape on south Tarawa. 

1) Construction of Roads and buildings
Figure 1. Map of South Tarawa showing location of villages depicted under road upgrading work schedule and the benthic survey sites (sites 1 –Nanikai – Bairiki causeway, site 2 – Teaoraereke (adjacent to Fair Price HQ) , site 3 – Tangintebu, site 4 opposite road to MELAD).

Construction of roads changed the landscape of a land.

2) Construction of causeway
                                              Dai Nippon Causeway in Kiribati

3) Establishing of Seawalls 
                                      The establishment of seawall lead to coastal erosion

There are many factors that contributing to the changes of the landscape of a land. These factors may be natural or human activity. Natural factors are commonly known as natural disasters as they occurred naturally and  mostly found in volcanic islands. Some example of natural disasters are floods, typhoons, earthquakes, hurricanes, and even wildfires but these natural disasters are not found in Kiribati. In Kiribati, human activities is the main factor  that changed the landscape of the land. Human activities can sometimes link with natural events such as erosion. These human activity arise from urban development as people altered the landscape by constructing roads and buildings and the establishment of causeways and seawalls.

Firstly, the construction of roads is one of the things that actually changed the landscape in Kiribati. In South Tarawa which is the capital city of Kiribati, upgrading roads in villages is more priority to the government. Refer to figure 1 to see villages that upgrading their road. When I interview with one of the MELAD officer, and he stated that in those centuries, there is no flat road on every islands as it was only a rough and narrow path. The introduction of a wide and modern road actually change the landscape of the land as if there are high places or valleys on the land, this needed to flatten and make tem smooth so that transports can use it when travelling from villages to villages. A good example of a wide and modern road was just found in south Tarawa. Besides, the construction of new buildings also lead to a changing of the landscape of a land. In south Tarawa, there are many places being destroyed to provide spaces for the establishment of new buildings. For example, sport complex in Betio and Junior Secondary School in Betio. This where it cause a great destruction to the environment and a massive deforestation to plants in order to provide such available spaces for those particular new buildings.

Secondly, the construction of causeways  is also having an impact on the landscape of the land. In South Tarawa, there is a causeway that connected between Bairiki and Betio and this causeway absolutely affect the landscape of Bikeman. Bikeman is an islet  situated in the northeast of Betio and you can see its picture in Figure 2. In the 1970s there are many plants that can be seen growing on this little islet. When the Dai Nippon causeway established in the 1980s, the current of south Tarawa at that time was changed where Bikeman was started to erode. In the 1990s Bikeman was disappeared and it turned to a sandbank where it can be seen just in the low tide.  Refer to Fig.1 to see the picture of Bikeman.

Finally, the establishment of seawalls also affect the landscape of the land. The establishment of seawalls in South Tarawa is a new situation where it affect the coastal areas to be eroded. When referring to figure 7 which shows the coastal erosion in Nanikai, this is happened after the establishment of a seawall not far from that place. Generally, the construction of seawall actually link the changing of the wave current. Once the seawall established, the sea current is also changed. From this where the wave current naturally changed its function and as a result it can caused erosion to coastal areas at that particular place.

In conclusion,  it obvious that human activities is contributed to the changing of the landscape in Kiribati. This where people can modify the land in a way that they can flaten those rough places and also ruined the life of natural vegetation when cutting down plants and trees in an excessive amount. Building causeways and seawalls can absolutely cause erosion to many low islands as it changes the wave current. This can change the landscape of the land where the land can sometimes disappeared  just the same case with Bikeman islet.